However, despite its drawish tendency, the Berlin Endgame remains the sternest test of the entire variation beginning with 3...Nf6, and a lot of theory has evolved here. Alessandro Salvio writes that López travelled to Rome again, in 1572. Anatoly Karpov (born Zlatoust, Russia, 23 May 1951) is a Soviet and Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion.He was official world champion from 1975 to 1985, played three more matches for the title from 1986 to 1990, then was FIDE World Champion from 1993 to 1999.. His tournament successes include over 160 first-place finishes. [15][16], Peter Svidler recorded an entire video series about this defence.[17]. One such game was recorded by Polerio, and was played during the contests between Italians and Spaniards before King Phillip II: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 Qe7 5.b4 Bb6 6.a4 a6 7.Ba3 d6 8.Qe2 Bg4 9.d3 Nf6 10.Nbd2[14]. White may also delay the exchange for a move or two: 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.Bxc6 or 5.0-0 Be7 6.Bxc6 (the Delayed Exchange Deferred), for example; at first glance this seems a waste of time, but Black having played ...Nf6 rules out defending the pawn with ...f6, and the bishop already being on e7 means that ...Bd6 would be a loss of tempo. The variation 5.d4 (ECO C77), named after George Henry Mackenzie who employed it on a regular basis, is an old line which, according to modern theory, does not promise White any advantage, though is adopted as an alternative to the main variation 5.0-0. Understanding the relationships between minor pieces is crucial to chess. López contends that the following line proves black should avoid the "Ruy López" by playing 2... d6 instead of 2... Nc6. If you choose to play with 6.d3 in the Ruy Lopez, then upon entering the Ruy Lopez, you have roughly a 37% chance of reaching this variation or similar variations with some direct application. Thank you Anya for your brilli White has several options, including attempting to build an ideal pawn centre with c3 and d4, defending the e-pawn with Re1 or simply developing. White's most common reply is 4.c3, when Black may choose to play 4...f5, the Cordel Gambit, leading to sharp play, after which 5.d4 is considered the strongest reply. White threatens 7.Bxc6 winning the e5-pawn leaving Black a choice of either 6...d6 or 6...b5. The Chigorin is divided into four ECO classifications. Black seeks counterplay in the centre via 15...c5. Sign up | Log in. The logical retreat is 18.Be3, which is met by 18...Nc5. Ramirez - son of Ramiro, famous and wise. This can be considered the main line of the opening as a whole and thousands of top-level games have reached this position. Alternatives are 8.a4, 8.h3, 8.d4, and 8.d3, which are often called "anti-Marshall" moves. White usually plays 9.h3 instead of 9.d4 (the Yates Variation) because after 9.d4 Bg4 (the Bogoljubow Variation), the pin of the white king knight is troublesome. You can help Wikipedia by adding to it . In C96, Black or White deviate after 10.Bc2, and do not reach the classical main line position 10...c5 11.d4 Qc7. The company is a Florida Domestic Limited-Liability Company, which was filed on October 1, 2018. In the Modern Steinitz Defence (also called Neo-Steinitz Defence) (ECO C71–C76), Black interpolates 3...a6 4.Ba4 before playing 4...d6, which was frequently played by Alekhine, José Raúl Capablanca and Paul Keres. López is a surname of Spanish origin. But my vote goes to McDonald's Ruy Lopez: Move By Move for a first book on the Ruy. In the Open Defence, 3...a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Nxe4, Black tries to make use of the time White will take to regain the pawn to gain a foothold in the centre, with play usually continuing 6.d4 b5 7.Bb3 d5 (but not 7...exd4? It is a pretty long trap to memorize but puts black up by a bishop. Andrew Soltis, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 20:13. It is convenient to divide the possibilities into two groups based on whether or not Black responds with (3...a6), which is named the Morphy Defence after Paul Morphy, although he was not the originator of the line. White's responses 5.d4, 5.Nc3, and 5.c4 are included in C71, while 5.0-0 is C72. By far, too. After 18 years of follow-up in women and 12 … [36] However, Edward Winter found no clear evidence of the date for Frere–Marshall; several games between 1910 and 1918 where Marshall passed up opportunities to use the Marshall Attack against Capablanca; and an 1893 game that used the same line as in Frere–Marshall. The delayed exchange 5.Bxc6+ bxc6 6.d4 is C73. Black generally goes all-in with a massive kingside attack, which has been analysed to great depth (sometimes beyond move 30) with no definite conclusion as to the Marshall's soundness. In the Averbakh Variation (C87), named for Yuri Averbakh, Black defends the threatened e-pawn with 6...d6 instead of driving away the white bishop with the more common 6...b5. With careful play White is held to gain an advantage. It's also one of the most misunderstood. The Modern Steinitz Defense (3...a6 4.Ba4 d6) offers Black a freer position and is more popular. White's principal alternative to 4.c3 is 4.0-0, when Black can transpose to the Classical Berlin with 4...Nf6 or play 4...Nd4, which is not so bad for Black. This opening is popularly known as the Spanish game and was named after a Spanish priest, Ruy Lopez, who discovered this opening in the year of 1561. After 4.0-0, Black can play either the solid 4...Nxe4 (the Berlin Main Variation) or the more combative 4...Bc5 (the Berlin Classical Variation). I own serveral books by Neil MacDonald. Instead he concluded lines with comments such as how black must lose his queen,[12] or that white has a very good game.[13]. It isn’t clear where the “Noah’s Ark” name came from. After 6.0-0 Be7 7.Re1 Black is forced to concede the centre with 7...exd4, since 7...0-0? The sharp Siesta Variation arises after 5.c3 f5, while a manoeuvring game results from the calmer 5.c3 Bd7 6.d4. Zafra’s shops, bars and restaurants can be found in the surrounding streets. Yet White doesn't have to go into the endgame, and can instead play 4 d3. In the Classical World Chess Championship 2004, challenger Peter Leko used the Marshall to win an important game against World Champion Vladimir Kramnik. López was also esteemed for his ability at blindfold chess. In the 1950s, Mark Taimanov played it with some success, though it remained a sideline, as it has to this day. In 1543, before a permanent Spanish colony had been settled on the islands, explorer Ruy López de Villalobos presumptuously named the two islands of Leyte and Samar as Las Islas Fil… H.J.R Murray argues, however, that the Masters' criticism of López is unfair and likely stems from his play's resemblance to Philidor's, who was their school's great rival.[2]. It is more probable, however, that López visited Rome only once (in 1559) and that Salvio's chronology is incorrect. The Ruy Lopez , also called the Spanish Opening or Spanish Game, is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The address on file for this person is 3290 N Seacrest Blvd, Boynton Beach, FL 33435 in Palm Beach County. 8...exd4 occurred in Loewenthal–Morphy, London 1859,[14] which seems to be the first time this variation was ever played. The Ruy Lopez Main Lines, arise (with a few exceptions for move order and such) after 1 e4 e5 Nf3 Nc6 3 Bb5 a6 4 Ba4 Nf6 5 0-0. Each room at Casa Ruy Lopez has attractive traditional décor. The Magellan Expedition. White can gain time after playing d4 as the black bishop will have to move, but this does not always seem to be as important as was once thought.[12]. After 6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3, Black often plays 7...0-0. However, I hear that the Ruy Lopez is getting less popular in top level because of the Berlin defense. [3] In modern practice, however, White does not always exchange bishop for knight on c6, preferring the retreat 4.Ba4 if chased by 3...a6. This line often leads to sharp positions in which Black wagers that the fianchettoed bishop's influence on the centre and kingside will offset Black's delay in castling. Today, 9.Be3 Be7 10.c3 is often used to transpose into the main line, 9.c3, while obviating the option of the Dilworth. The writer is an FM, I have no idea how good of a writer he is. Peter Svidler has dedicated an entire video series to the fashionable 6.d3 line.[32]. The Zaitsev can be considered to be an improved Smyslov in which Black tries to save a tempo by omitting ...h6. White normally continues with 7.c3 and after 8...0-0 White can choose between 9.Nbd2 or 9 Re1. The main line begins with 9.exd5 Nxd5 (9...e4? Magnesium intake was evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire every 2–4 years. The main line continues 10.d4 Nbd7 11.Nbd2 Bb7 12.Bc2 Re8 13.Nf1 Bf8. C74–C76 all begin with 5.c3. A common variation might be … However, Black can also play 8...d5 for the Marshall Attack. López was again able to best Ceron.[3]. The Berlin Defense is drawish if we reach the Berlin endgame. White must take some care not to fall into the Noah's Ark Trap, in which Black traps White's king bishop on the b3-square with a ...a6, ...b5, and ...c4 pawn advance on the queenside. You may have even played one of these traps out without realizing it! The knight on f6 prevents Black from supporting the e-pawn with ...f7–f6, and the bishop is somewhat passively posted on e7. This variation was originated by Carl Jaenisch in 1847 and is sometimes named after him. Chess popularity increased by 857%. There are six ECO classifications for the Modern Steinitz. The Norwegian connection was first introduced by Svein Johannessen who played the line from 1957 and later strengthened when Simen Agdestein and some other Norwegian players adopted the variation. Although Bent Larsen used it occasionally with success, it remains one of the least explored variations of the Ruy Lopez. Although it is still sometimes seen as a surprise weapon, no strong master since Bird has adopted it regularly. Perhaps the most famous game in this variation is Smyslov–Reshevsky, 1945 USSR–USA Radio Match. By playing 6.d3[30] White steers clear of the Marshall Attack and any of the Anti-Marshall lines. This defence has been known since the 1880s and was reintroduced in 1901 by Carl Schlechter. The Ruy Lopez (/rɔɪ, ˈruːi/; Spanish: [ˈruj ˈlopeθ]),[1] also called the Spanish Opening or Spanish Game, is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Ruy Lopez is named after 16th-century Spanish priest Ruy López de Segura. [10], In this work López presents sixty-six games, of which twenty-four were taken from Damiano's 1512 book. A Karpov favourite, the Zaitsev remains one of the most important variations of the Ruy Lopez. 8.Re1 d5 9.Nc3!, Bobby Fischer–Petar Trifunovic, Bled 1961[18]) 8.dxe5 Be6. Since Black's compensation is based on positional rather than tactical considerations, it is difficult or perhaps impossible to find a refutation. H.J.R Murray, "Specifically with respect to large amount of King's Gambits in the second part of his book, Ruy López deserves the epithet "father of opening theory. "[1] Third comes a hostile appraisal of Damiano's opening analysis. Odessa, 1989. Ruy López' contribution to chess was mainly to its opening theory; his analysis of the King's Gambit in particular went well beyond earlier writing such as Damiano's. The name “Filipinas” only came about in 1542 when Ruy Lopez de Villalobos named Leyte-Samar in honor of Felipe, Principe de Asturias, the future Philip II of Spain. Karpov tried 9...Nd7 several times in the 1990 World Championship match, but Kasparov achieved a significant advantage against it in the 18th game. The Cozio Defence (part of ECO C60), 3...Nge7, is distinctly old-fashioned and the least popular of the defences at Black's third move. Ruy Lopez is listed as a President with Cecilia's Marble And Granite, Inc in Florida. For my level of play, his new book, "The Ruy Lopez: Move by Move," is simply the best opening book I own. I have recently started playing the Ruy Lopez and I've not once found it to be drawish. [44], Of the variations in this section, the Berlin and Schliemann Defences are the most popular today, followed by the Classical Defence.[45]. Perez - son of Pedro, stone or rock. Karpov's move, 9.Nbd2, limits Black's options. One drawback of this line if Black is playing for a win is that White can force Black to choose a different defence or allow a draw by repetition of position with 11.Ng5 Rf8 12.Nf3. This is a respectable enough sideline, although masters usually prefer other mainline Ruy Lopez variations that are perhaps a bit stronger for Black. [35] The most common counterclaim is that Marshall had used a similar approach in 1917 against Walter Frere. This is actually a family of traps using the Ruy Lopez opening to trap the white bishop on b3. The Smyslov Defence, Fianchetto Defence, Barnes Defence, or Pillsbury Defence (part of ECO C60), 3...g6, is a quiet positional system played occasionally by Vasily Smyslov and Boris Spassky, becoming popular in the 1980s when it was shown that 4.c3 a6! The Ruy Lopez is capable of producing a Fool’s Mate against an inexperienced or nervous player who might fail to note positioning of the queen and king’s bishop.’> "Tactics of Conquest" from the "award-winning" Barry Malzberg (New York, 1973-74) Dec-30-07 : Another alternative is playing 4.Bxc6 immediately. The Ruy Lopez is still among the most frequently played openings. Ruy Lopez . López was a native of Segura de León, a town in Extremadura, Spain. Zafra’s shops, bars and restaurants can be found in the surrounding streets. There is air conditioning, a flat-screen TV and a private bathroom. ", After 5.Nc3, Black usually plays 5...f6 to defend the e-pawn. The bishop in the ruy lopez puts black in an annoying position, the d pawn can't be moved without threats of doubling pawns, and kicking the bishop makes it end up on b3, cutting through the center on a really nice diagonal. It is one of the most popular openings, with such a vast number of variations that in the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings (ECO), all codes from C60 to C99 are assigned to them. An illustration of an open book. With the move order 3...a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 d6, Black waits until White castles before playing ...d6. Here is a review at the BCF site. Confusingly 9...Nd7 is also called the Chigorin Variation so there are two variations of the Ruy Lopez with that name, but 9...Na5 is the move more commonly associated with Chigorin. After 18 years of follow-up in women and 12 … The main line continues with 5...exd4 (5... Nxe4 6.0-0 transposes to the Open Defence) 6.0-0 (6.e5 Ne4 is harmless) Be7 (6...Nxe4 transposes to the Riga Variation of the Open Defence) which leads to the Centre Attack (ECO C84) of the Closed Defence. It has a restaurant, free WiFi and a terrace. Following 4.d4, Black proceeds with 4...Bd7 which breaks the pin but also defends against White's threat of winning a pawn with 5.Bxc6 and 6.dxe5. ?, a move suggested by his trainer, Igor Zaitsev. The Riga Variation, 6...exd4, is considered inferior; the main line runs 7.Re1 d5 8.Nxd4 Bd6! She was ph... enomenal as Beth Harmon in the @netflix series The Queen’s Gambit. The Magellan Expedition. (10.Kxh2 Qh4+ 11.Kg1 Qxf2+ draws by perpetual check.) This short article about a person or group of people can be made longer. Reshevsky had not seen the analysis and he struggled in vain to solve the position over the board with his chess clock running. The main point of 3...a6 is that after the common retreat 4.Ba4, Black will have the possibility of breaking a future pin on the queen knight by playing ...b5. Digirida al muy Illustre Señor Don Garcia de Toledo, ayo y mayordomo del serenissimo principe Don Carlos nuestro Señor., was published in 1561. He made great contributions to chess opening theory, including in the King's Gambit and the Ruy López (or Spanish) opening that bears his name. Examined in this section are the alternatives to the main line: The Delayed Exchange Variation Deferred (or Exchange Variation Doubly Deferred) (ECO C85), 6.Bxc6, loses a tempo compared to the Exchange Variation, though in compensation, the black knight on f6 and bishop on e7 are awkwardly placed. The main lines of the Closed Ruy Lopez continue 6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 d6 8.c3 0-0. [24][25]This has been played at the top by World No.2 Fabiano Caruana among others, and he recommends this in his video series for Chessbase. Steinitz did not approve of the move; in 1889, he wrote, "on principle this ought to be disadvantageous as it drives the bishop where it wants to go". Odessa, 1989. White then usually tries to attack the Black queenside via 15.a4. Additionally, Tevis himself was a lifelong, self-taught chess player, and in the novel, he name-checks strategies like the Sicilian Defense, the Ruy Lopez, and the … 4...bxc6 is rarely played due to the reply 5.d4 exd4 6.Qxd4 and White is in control of the centre. Chess popularity increased by 857%. It is one of the most popular openings, with such a vast number of variations that all codes from C60 to C99 in the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings (ECO) are assigned to them. The Ruy Lopez (or Spanish Opening) is one of the oldest and most important chess openings, popular with amateurs as well as professional players. The Ruy Lopez Main Lines, arise (with a few exceptions for move order and such) after 1 e4 e5 Nf3 Nc6 3 Bb5 a6 4 Ba4 Nf6 5 0-0. After 6... exd4 (6... Nxe4 and 6... b5 are viable alternatives) 7.Re1 b5 (7... 0-0 8. e5 Ne8 is a playable alternative) White can play either 8.Bb3 or the sharp 8.e5. Artur Yusupov is one of the few grandmasters who has adopted the Dilworth repeatedly.[21][22][23]. White plays 19.Qd2, forcing 19...h5. Qxd8 13.Nxd8+ Kxd8 14.Kxh2 Be6 (14...f5?? The company is a Florida Domestic Profit Corporation, which was filed on December 8, 2004. For my level of play, his new book, "The Ruy Lopez: Move by Move," is simply the best opening book I own. The point of this manoeuver was to weaken Black's kingside. Black will kick the bishop with 17...h6. Today the theory in the Zaitsev variations extends beyond the middlegame, and it is rarely seen at the top levels because of the need to remember a lot of theory. Casa Ruy Lopez is located in the center of Zafra and next to its main square. Bb5. [3] In 1559, while living in Zafra, López was called to Rome by Pope Pius IV on ecclesiastical business. Other Black moves in this position are 11...Bb7 and 11...Nd7; the latter was adopted by Keres a few times in the 1960s. After 4.Bxc6, Black almost always responds 4...dxc6. Let me regale you with some stories. White immediately starts the battle for the centre, fighting for the initiative. 6.Nf3 Qxe4+ 7.Qe2 Qxe2+ 8.Kxe2 leaves White with no compensation for Black's bishop pair. 1530-1580 is commonly given without evidence. Morales - the person who lives near a mulberry or blackberry bush. Doknjas' Opening Repertoire: The Ruy Lopez was published last year, so it is easily the most recent white report in the Ruy. After all, he had the two bishops. It's more important than most other things, including space, pawn structure, and sometimes even material. [11] Other authors have given varying opinions about the quality of López' analysis. White has a variety of options at move nine, including 9.c3, 9.Be3, 9.Qe2 and 9.Nbd2. It also gives black a better board position. [40] White plays 9.d3 intending to later advance to d4 under favourable circumstances. Alexander Alekhine played this for Black in the early portion of his career; despite his advocacy, it never achieved great popularity, and even he eventually came to consider it dubious. Black will try to counter this knight manoeuver by expanding on the queenside, taking action in the centre, or putting pressure on e4. During his stay in Rome, López played chess with the locals. Ever since Vladimir Kramnik successfully used the line as a drawing weapon against Garry Kasparov in their 2000 World Chess Championship match, the Berlin has experienced a remarkable renaissance: even players with a dynamic style such as Alexei Shirov, Veselin Topalov, Hikaru Nakamura, and Kasparov himself have tried it, and Magnus Carlsen and Viswanathan Anand both used it (Carlsen extensively so) during the 2013 World Chess Championship and 2014 World Chess Championship. This position was first reached in a high-level encounter between Viswanathan Anand and Michael Adams, Grenke Chess Classic 2013. "- Peter J. Monté, "At that time, the best players of modern-rules chess lived in Italy and Iberia. It is a pretty long trap to memorize but puts black up by a bishop. Spanish Expeditions to the Philippines . Bb5 a6 4. If you choose to play with 6.d3 in the Ruy Lopez, then upon entering the Ruy Lopez, you have roughly a 37% chance of reaching this variation or similar variations with some direct application. A notable game is Adhiban–Nakamura from the 2013 FIDE World Cup.[9]. The Smyslov Variation (ECO C93) is a plan similar to that of the Zaitsev Variation. [26] If Black takes the knight with 11...Qxg5 White regains the material with 12.Qf3. @anyataylorjoy is the Chess Club Live Person of the Year. Bird's Defence (ECO C61), 3...Nd4, is an uncommon variation in modern praxis. Ruiz - son of Ruy, powerful ruler. Likewise, with the 5.d3 variation, you have roughly a 55% chance of being able to enter that variation upon playing the Ruy Lopez. Bb5. It also gives black a better board position. Reyes - king, royal. The Graz Defence, Classical Defence Deferred, and Møller Defence combine 3...a6 with the active move ...Bc5. [33][failed verification], This gambit became famous when Frank James Marshall used it as a prepared variation against José Raúl Capablanca in 1918; nevertheless, Capablanca found a way through the complications and won. Instead, the very sharp La Grande Variante continues 15.cxd4 f4 16.f3 Ng3 17.hxg3 fxg3 18.Qd3 Bf5 19.Qxf5 Rxf5 20.Bxf5 Qh4 21.Bh3 Qxd4+ 22.Kh1 Qxe5, with unclear consequences. At nearly every move there are many reasonable alternatives, and most have been deeply explored. Another line is the more traditional 7.c3 d6 8.d4 and after 8...Bb6 Black's position is fine. He was likely born before 1534,[4] and lived until at least the 1574 contest. With 9...Bb7 Black prepares to put more pressure on e4 after 10.d4 Re8 11.Nbd2 Bf8, when play can become very sharp and tactical. He may deserve the title of world champion, but that title did not exist until the late nineteenth century." White will try to attack on the kingside via 17.Bg5, moving forces to the kingside. [5] The move became popular after it was played by Paul Morphy, however, and it is named for him. Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese in the service of the Spanish crown, was looking for a westward route to the to the Spice Islands of Indonesia.On March 16, 1521, Magellan's expedition landed on Homonhon island in the Philippines.He was the first European to reach the islands. There's a few things about it that I'd love to share. The game is also sharp after 5.Bxc6+ bxc6 6.d4 (ECO C73) or 5.0-0 Bg4 6.h3 h5 (ECO C72). This acting tour de force was globally recognised, her performance was so transcendental and true that people previously unconcerned about Chess became enamoured by it. After 6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 d6 8.c3 0-0, we have: The Pilnik Variation, named for Herman Pilnik, is also known as the Teichmann Variation from the game Teichmann–Schlechter, Karlsbad 1911. It happened gradually and it began with the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer, in 1521. Ruy López de Segura invented the Ruy Lopez chess opening. No one questioned the authority of two bishops until the modern players like Botvinnik, Tal, Smyslov, and Bronstein realized tha… Boi and a much-improved di Bona defeated López and Ceron in Madrid, in the presence of Phillip II. The Classical Defence or Cordel Defence (ECO C64), 3...Bc5, is possibly the oldest defence to the Ruy Lopez, and has been played occasionally by former world champion Boris Spassky and Boris Gulko. The years of López' birth and death can be estimated only very approximately; a lifespan of ca. The Ruy Lopez is one of the most popular chess openings for both sides after 1.e4, and despite this I feel like there are few good detailed resources for players of the white side wishing to play the main lines in the Ruy. (Rotary Defence or Albany Defence), 3...d5? In today’s featured game, between Garry Kasparov and Veselin Topalov, the Ruy Lopez … The C98 classification covers 12.Nbd2 Nc6, while C99 covers 12.Nbd2 cxd4 13.cxd4. Ba4 Nf6 5. The Breyer Variation did not become popular until the 1960s when it was adopted by Boris Spassky and others. 10.Kh1! Moves: 1. e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3. In C97, White proceeds from the diagram with 12.a4, 12.d5, 12.b4, or the main line 12.Nbd2 when Black responds with ...Be6, ...Rd8, ...Re8, ...Bb7 or ...Bd7. [2][7], López' reputation suffered from the writings of the Modenese Masters. At the most basic level, White's third move attacks the knight which defends the e5-pawn from the attack by the f3-knight. Marshall Attack after 11...c6, the most common move in modern play. The company is a Florida Domestic Limited-Liability Company, which was filed on October 1, 2018. The main line runs 10.d4 Bxb3 11.axb3 (11.Qxb3 is another option) exd4 12.cxd4 d5 13.e5 Ne4 14.Nc3 f5 15.exf6 Bxf6 16.Nxe4 dxe4 17.Rxe4 Qd5 18.Rg4, when it has been shown that White's extra pawn is more valuable than Black's more active and harmonised pieces. An interesting gambit line 4.d4 exd4 5.c3 has also been recommended by Alexander Khalifman, although some of the resulting positions have yet to be extensively tested. More solid for Black is 4...Nf6, when 5.0-0 0-0 6.d4 Bb6 leads to the Benelux Variation. According to J.H. The Berlin is assigned ECO codes C65–C67. and the Marshall Attack was adopted by top players including Boris Spassky, John Nunn and more recently Michael Adams. The last significant use of the Russian Defence was in the 1950s when it was played by some Russian masters. Although d2–d3–d4 appears to lose a tempo compared to d2–d4, White may be able to omit h3 regaining the tempo, especially if Black plays ...Bb7. The opening is named after the 16th-century Spanish priest Ruy López de Segura, who made a systematic study of this and other openings in the 150-page book on chess Libro del Ajedrez, written in 1561.Although it bears his name, this particular opening was included in the Göttingen manuscript, which dates from c. 1490. In response, White can either force d4 with 8.h3 Bh5 9.Bxc6 bxc6 10.d4, or postpone d4 for the time being and play 8.d3 followed by manoeuvering the queen knight to the kingside with Nbd2–f1–g3. [1] López was also the strongest player in Spain for about 20 years.[2]. The game usually continues 9...Be7 10.Rd1 followed by 10...Nc5 or 10...0-0. Open Variation, l'Hermet Variation after 8...Kxd8, Morphy Defence: alternatives to Closed Defence, Steinitz Defence Deferred: 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 d6, Arkhangelsk Defence: 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 b5 6.Bb3 Bb7, Modern Arkhangelsk Defence: 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 b5 6.Bb3 Bc5, Closed Defence 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Be7: alternatives to Main line, Delayed Exchange Variation Deferred: 6.Bxc6, Main line: 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Be7 6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 d6 8.c3 0-0, Yates Variation and Bogoljubow Variation: 9.d4, Morphy played 3...a6 in the second (a draw) and fourth (a win for Morphy) games of his 1858 match with, List of chess openings named after people, "Lasker vs. Capablanca, St. Petersburg (1914)", "Adhiban vs. Nakamura, FIDE World Cup (2013)", "Fischer vs. Portisch, 17th Chess Olympiad (1966)", "Fischer vs. Gligoric, 17th Chess Olympiad (1966)", "Anatoly Karpov vs. Viktor Korchnoi, Candidates Final, 1974", "Johann Jacob Loewenthal vs. Paul Morphy (1859)", "Vachier Lagrave vs. Caruana, Candidates Tournament (2020)", "Grischuk vs. Caruana, Candidates Tournament (2020)", "Introduction - Peter Svidler chess video", "Robert James Fischer vs. Petar Trifunovic (1961)", "Jose Raul Capablanca vs. Edward Lasker (1915)", "Vasily Smyslov vs. Samuel Reshevsky, USSR–USA Radio Match, 1945", "Morovic-Fernandez vs. Yusupov, Tunis Interzonal, 1985", "Ljubojevic vs. Yusupov, Tilburg Interpolis, 1987", "Short vs. Yusupov, Belgrade Investbank, 1989", "Keres vs. Euwe, FIDE World Championship tournament, 1948", "Keres vs. Reshevsky, FIDE World Championship tournament, 1948", "Anatoly Karpov vs. Viktor Korchnoi, World Chess Championship, 1978", "Garry Kasparov vs. Viswanathan Anand, World Chess Championship, 1995", "Nigel Short vs. Anatoly Karpov, Candidates Semifinal, game 6 (1992)", "Nigel Short vs. Anatoly Karpov, Candidates Semifinal, game 8 (1992)", "CHESSGAMES.COM * Chess game search engine", "Viswanathan Anand vs. Michael Adams (2013)", "Introduction to the 6.d3 Spanish - Peter Svidler chess video", "Vladimir Kramnik vs. Peter Leko, World Chess Championship, 2004", "Teichmann vs Schlechter, Karlsbad (1911)", "Jose Raul Capablanca vs. Efim Bogoljubow (1922)", "Kasparov vs. Deferred ( ECO C73 ) or the aggressive 9... 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