[63] The temple is embedded inside a commercial hub and traditional markets. [114], Shyama Shastri, one of the Trinity of Carnatic music, had composed a set of nine Telugu songs in praise of Meenakshi of Madurai, which are referred to as Navaratnamalika(Garland of nine gems). It has 124 pillars, each with intricately carved sculptures of Meenakshi's wedding to Shiva, Kali, Nataraja, Surya, Chandra as well as common life scenes such as elephants eating sugarcane stalks are found in this mandapam. However, the temple is definitely one of the "wonders of India". Kadaka Gopuram in Meenakshi’s shrine was built by Tumpichi Nayakkar around the mid 16th century, but different texts give different dates. [42] After the conquest and destruction, the Delhi Sultan appointed a Muslim governor in Madurai, who seceded within the few years from the Delhi Sultanate and began the Madurai Sultanate. After the city's destruction in the 14th century, the Tamil tradition states that the king Vishwantha Nayaka rebuilt the temple and the Madurai city around it in accordance with the principles laid down in the Shilpa Shastras(… One legend describes a childless king and queen performing yajna for a son, they get a daughter who inherits the kingdom, conquers the earth, meets Shiva ultimately, marries him, continues to rule from Madurai, and the temple memorializes those times. [16][40], The shrines of Meenakshi temple are embedded inside three walled enclosures and each of these have four gateways, the outer tower growing larger and reaching higher to the corresponding inner one. Madurai Meenakshi Temple Timings, Darshan, Pooja, and Other Details. Koodal Azhagar Temple: This temple is a Vishnu temple. Early Tamil texts mention the temple and its primary deity by various epithets and names. Chinnappa Nayakkar constructed the 100-pillared Mandapa Nayaka Mandapam in the northeastern part of second courtyard in 1526. His alternate names in texts and Madurai Meenakshi temple-related inscriptions include Chockalingam, Chockanathar, Meenakshi Sundarar, Somasundarar, Kalyana Sundarar, Shanbaga Sundarar, Attavai Shevagan, Adiyarku Nallan, Adhiraveesi, Vilayaduvan, Abhideka Chockar, Azhagiya Chockar, Kadambavana Chockar, Puzhugu Neidhu Chockar, Kadambavaneswarar, Karpoora Chockar, Madureswarar, Irayanar, Peralavayar. Meenakshi Amman Temple is the world famous Temple situated in the centre of the Madurai city in Tamil Nadu. See more ideas about madurai, temple, india. [16][40] Chettiappa Nayakkar rebuilt the north colonnade of the Golden Lotus Tank, as well as Dvarapala mandapam in front of the Sannadhi gopuram. In the northeast corner is another stone image of his consort. The Vijayanagara rulers succeeded, removed the ruins and reopened the temple for active worship. [105] The rituals and festivals are accompanied with music with nadhaswaram (pipe instrument) and tavil (percussion instrument), recitation of the Vedas.[103]. The initiative for some changes to the structure was under the supervision of Ariyanatha Mudaliar, the prime minister of the Nayaka Dynasty. According to historical findings, creation of this temple can be traced back to early A.D. [115], Historic Hindu temple in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, Every pillar is carved with religious or secular sculpture. This is decidedly the oldest city of South India, truly representing Dravidian culture. Built sometime between the year 1623 and 1655, the wonderful architecture of the place is renowned globally. [64], The temple complex has had a living history, has been in use for almost all of its history except for about 60 years when it was closed and in ruins after its destruction in the 14th century. The Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple history dates back all the way to the late 12th century. An anti-Nadar coalition was created by Vellasami Thevar, the inherited ruler of a vast land under the Raja of Ramnad and the grandfather of the late Muthuramalinga Thevar. [71] Both open to the east. The shrine has a 3-storied. During this autumn festival, the temple complex is lit up at night with garlands of lights and with colourful displays during the day. [51] The king started a procession tradition linked to the temple to link his authority with the divine and maintain the social system. The marriage of Meenakshi and Shiva was the biggest event, with all gods, goddesses and living beings gathered. [27], Meenakshi (Sanskrit: मीनाक्षी, lit. Vishnu is believed to be the brother of Meenakshi. [49], The temple was rebuilt by the Hindu Nayaka dynasty ruler Vishwanatha Nayak in the 16th and 17th century. Of the many attractions that make South India a cultural paradise on earth, Meenakshi Temple is the most iconic and popular one. The temple structure with its concentric squares and high walled enclosures is a lesson for students of architecture. [109][110][111], Over the centuries, the temple has been a centre of education of culture, literature, art, music and dance. The Meenakshi temple is believed to be founded by Indra (king of Devas) while he was on a pilgrimage. [24], The Meenakshi temple is located in the heart of historic Madurai city, about a kilometer south of the Vaigai River. Like most Shakti temples in Tamil Nadu, the Fridays during the Tamil months of Aadi (July–August) and Thai (January–February) are celebrated in the temple by thousands of devotees. It consists of monuments inside a number of concentric enclosures, each layer fortified with high masonry walls. Located on the southern bank of the Vaigai River in Madurai, this Hindu temple is an epitome of classic architecture with murals so gorgeous that it … The most important part of Madurai tour, this temple was built during the Pandya reign and is now under the administration of HR and CE department of Tamil Nadu. [106] The wedding of the divine couple is regarded as a classic instance of south Indian marriage with matrilineal emphasis, an arrangement referred as "Madurai marriage". It is dedicated to Parvati, known as Meenakshi, and her consort, Shiva, here named Sundareswarar. Priests perform the puja ceremonies on a daily basis and during festivals. The famous temple of Meenakshi is located in Madurai, one of the ancient cities of India in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. History of Sri Meenakshi Amman Temple, Madurai Meenakshi temple of Madurai is a historically rich temple which also bestows devotees with blessings of the Lord and Goddess. Muslim armies had begun raiding central India for plunder by the late 13th century. [71], The goddess shrine has the green stone image of Meenakshi, standing in bent-leg posture. The celestial couple is seated inside an architectural frame with a flowering tree in the background. The Nandi mandapam was renovated again in 1877. Excerpt for the etymology of Meenatchi from ", Christopher Fuller (1995), The 'Holy Family' of Shiva in a south Indian temple, Social Anthropology, Volume 3, Issue 3, Cambridge University Press, pages 205-217, Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments Department, "This Temple Is Covered in Thousands of Colorful Statues", "Madurai's Meenakshi Temple named best 'Swachh Iconic Place' in India", https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02666030.1997.9628522, Arulmigu Meenakshi Sundareshwarar Thirukkoil – Temple Towers, South Indian Temple: Mīnākṣī and Sundareśvara at Madurai, Navarathri celebrations: Meenakshi temple golu display steals the show, Crowds throng Madurai Meenakshi temple for ‘golu’, "* Mīnākṣī-Sundareśvara - 'Tiruviḷaiyāṭaṟ Purāṇam' in Letters, Design and Art", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Meenakshi_Temple&oldid=1002489070, Religious buildings and structures in Madurai, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Chithirai Thiruvizha, Navaratri, Cradle festival, Aavanimolam, Portions of the three-storeyed gopura at the entrance of Sundareswarar Shrine and the central portion of the Goddess Meenakshi Shrine are some of the earliest surviving parts of the temple. The temple has continued to evolve in the modern era. [35][67], The temple complex has 4 nine-storey gopurams (outer, raja), 1 seven-storey gopuram (Chittirai), 5 five-storey gopurams, 2 three-storey, and 2 one-storey gold-gilded sanctum towers. Vanniyadi Natarajar Mandapam and Annakkuli Mandapam were built by a woman named Chellappen Mannikkam in the late 16th century. The region is believed to have been covered with Kadamba forest and hence called Kadambavanam. Between 1310–1311, the Ala ud Din Khilji's Muslim general Malik Kafur and his Delhi Sultanate forces went deeper into the Indian peninsula for loot and to establish annual tribute paying Muslim governors. The restored complex now houses 14 gopurams (gateway towers), ranging from 45–50m in height, with the southern gopura tallest at 51.9 metres (170 ft). [29] She was earlier known by the Tamil name Thadadakai ("fish-eyed one"), which was called later as Meenakshi. 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