[1], In this second clash between ideologies for the prized Saxon city of Leipzig, the Protestant allied forces, led by Torstensson, defeated an army of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Leopold and his deputy, Prince-General Piccolomini. 64 relations. Tilly’s army drew up with his infantry flanked by cavalry. Battle of Breitenfeld (1642) The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some north-east of … The level of technology was roughly equivalent, with newer, lighter cannon and matchlocks giving the Swedes a slight advantage. There were 9,000 untrained Saxons present, which contributed little to the fight. The Battle of Breitenfeld (German: Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Swedish: Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately 8 km north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. These articles have not yet undergone the rigorous in-house editing or fact-checking and styling process to which most Britannica articles are customarily subjected. Count of Tilly, Johann Tserclaes (Count Tilly) outstanding general, principal commander of the Catholic League in Germany during the Thirty Years' War, 17th century. Conflicts in 1631: Battle of Breitenfeld: Llc, Books: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. Battle of Breitenfeld 1631 $ 3.95. His defeat made Emperor Ferdinand III more willing to negotiate peace, and renounce the Preliminary[clarification needed] of Hamburg. The battle was a decisive victory for the Swedish army under the command of Field Mars On the second day, officers were beheaded and selected men hanged on the trees on the road from Rokycany to Litohlavy. Historians are generally agreed that some kind of military revolution took place in the conduct of war during the seventeenth century and one name that stands out above all others in implementing it is Gustav Adolf II, king of Sweden, best known in the Latin form as Gustavus Adolphus. The field at Breitenfeld was a slightly hilly plain with a length of three kilometers, bordered by the forest from the south and the stream of Loberbach from the northeast. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some 7.5 kilometres north-east of Leipzig, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The battle marked the emergence of Sweden as a great power and the triumph of the new Swedish flexible linear tactics over the old massive infantry formations that had long dominated European warfare. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north-east of Leipzig, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. Gustavus Adolphus was thence feted as the "Lion of the North," and was able to draw several Protestant states into a major alliance. Gevechten in de Dertigjarige Oorlog De Slag bij Breitenfeld bij Leipzig was de eerste belangrijke protestantse overwinning in de Dertigjarige Oorlog. In the meantime, more information about the article and the author can be found by clicking on the author’s name. Battle of Breitenfeld. Although these articles may currently differ in style from others on the site, they allow us to provide wider coverage of topics sought by our readers, through a diverse range of trusted voices. https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Breitenfeld. Updates? Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. The battle was a decisive victory for the Swedish army under the command of Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson over an Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire under the command of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and his deputy, Prince-General Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi. The two armies met at Breitenfeld, just north of Leipzig on September 17, 1631. Let us know. The Battle of Breitenfeld, a victory of movement and firepower over weight of formation, has been called the first battle of the modern age, and Gustavus Adolphus has been hailed as the father of modern warfare. On the first day of the execution, the regiment's cords[clarification needed] were broken by the executioner. Questions or concerns? Gustavus Adolphus formed up in a similar fashion, but kept his lines separate from the raw Saxon army, which occupied a position to the left of the Swedes. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig (23 October 1642), took place at Breitenfeld (some 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north-east of Leipzig), Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. Omissions? The Swedish cavalry moved to outflank their enemy, who in response launched a charge, which was unable to make any headway after two hours of fighting. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north-east of Leipzig, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. The Protestants had 42,000 men, the Imperialists, 35,000. The first major Protestant victory of the Thirty Years’ War, the Battle of Breitenfeld saw King Gustav II Adolf (Gustavus Adolphus) of Sweden’s army defeat Catholic League forces under Johan Isaclaes, Graf von Tilly. Like the first battle, the second was a decisive victory for Swedish-led forces who had intervened in the Thirty Years' War on behalf of various Protestant princes of the generally small German states against the German Catholic League formed to resist Protestant expansion in Central Europe. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Archduke Leopold Wilhelm assembled a court-martial in Prague which sentenced the Madlon regiment to exemplary punishment. On this day in 1631, the Battle of Breitenfeld was fought between Sweden-Saxony under Gustavus Adolphus and John George and the Imperialists under Count Tilly during the Thirty Years War. The Battle of Breitenfeld (Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately five miles north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. In deze slag wist Gustaaf II Adolf van Zweden zijn naam te vestigen als grote militaire leider en verwierf de bijnaam 'Leeuw van het Noorden'. The forces all had different structural organization. Twenty-five miles (40 km) away in Leipzig, the imperial commander, Count Tilly, had an army of 35,000. The battle was a decisive victory for the Swedish army under the command of Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson over an Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire under the command of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and his deputy, Prince-General Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi. …emperor’s forces in battle: at Breitenfeld, just outside Leipzig in Saxony, he was totally victorious. Gustavus Adolphus was eager for a victory to convince other Protestant states to join him. The Battle of Breitenfeld I (1631) was overall a meeting engagementwith both combatants agreeing to battle on the field. Although Gustav died in battle…, >Breitenfeld in that same year, the Swedish army practically annihilated the imperial forces under the famous Bavarian general the Count von Tilly.…, In September 1631, at Breitenfeld, the Swedish-Saxon forces shattered Tilly’s army in a battle that was a landmark in the art of war and a turning point in the history of Germany. Map Code: Ax01485. The city of Dresden proclaimed September 17 henceforth a holiday. The Battle of Breitenfeld I (1631) was overall a meeting engagement with both combatants agreeing to battle on the field. Battle of Breitenfeld, (Sept. 17, 1631), the first major Protestant victory of the Thirty Years’ War, in which the army of the Roman Catholic Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II and the Catholic League, under Johan Isaclaes, Graf von Tilly, was destroyed by the Swedish-Saxon army under King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north-east of Leipzig, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. The Thirty Years War began in 1618 as an attempt by the Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II to eliminate Protestantism and reimpose Catholicism in Bohemia. Killed or wounded were 4,000 Swedes; among them, General Torsten Stålhandske, who led the Finnish Hakkapeliitta Cavalry, received a serious wound. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). This first Battle of Breitenfeld was the first major Catholic defeat of the Thirty Years’ War. This was followed by the massive flight of other cavalry units, which was the final turning point in the battle. By his military genius, Gustavus saved Germany from Hapsburg domination. Course of Battle. On September 17, 1631, a battle was fought at the village of Breitenfeld, near Leipzig. When they had obeyed that command, their ensigns (flags) were torn in pieces, and the general, having mentioned the causes of their degradation, and erased the regiment from the register of the imperial troops, pronounced the sentence that had been agreed upon in the council of war, condemning the colonel, captains and lieutenants to be beheaded, the ensigns (junior officers) to be hanged, the soldiers to be decimated and the survivors to be driven in disgrace out of the army.[4]. The Battle of Breitenfeld (German: Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Swedish: Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately 8 km north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. Battle of Breitenfeld, (Sept. 17, 1631), the first major Protestant victory of the Thirty Years’ War, in which the army of the Roman Catholic Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II and the Catholic League, under Johan Isaclaes, Graf von Tilly, was destroyed by the Swedish-Saxon army under King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden. (en) Die zweite Schlacht von Breitenfeld am 23. The Imperial army suffered 9,500 casualties, including 4,500 taken prisoner. Despite the murderous barrage that was raining down on the Imperialist army, Tilly did not intend to open to battle with cavalry attacks on both wings. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Six regiments, which had distinguished themselves in the battle, were assembled fully armed and surrounded Madlon's regiment, which was severely rebuked for its cowardice and misconduct and ordered to lay down its arms at the feet of General Piccolomini. The Battle of Breitenfeld (German: Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Swedish: Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately 8 km north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar ), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. Gustav Adolf moved deeper into Germany. His victory boosted Protestant hopes, which had been dashed by the loss at the Battle of Magdeburg. His highly trained troops forced back the imperial army, whose resistance ceased at dusk when thousands, including Tilly, fled the field. The Battle of Breitenfeld (Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately 8 km north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631.wikipedia Meanwhile, imperial forces attacked the Saxon army, which quickly fled the field. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}51°20′25″N 12°22′29″E / 51.3403°N 12.3748°E / 51.3403; 12.3748, For a related battle earlier in the same war, see, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Breitenfeld_(1642)&oldid=922129011, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2016, Articles needing additional references from June 2013, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 October 2019, at 03:56. Corrections? Battle of Breitenfeld (1642): | | | | | | Battle of Brei... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. Jacob F. Field is an early modern historian based at the University of Cambridge. The next summer they occupied Bavaria. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The level of technology was roughly equivalent, with newer, lighter cannon and matchlocks giving the Swedes a slight advantage. Tactics did play a more prominent role in this battle but operational maneuver also affected the scale of the Swedish victory. The Battle of Breitenfeld (German: Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Swedish: Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately 8 km north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on 17 September (Gregorian calendar), or 7 September (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Although Tilly had fewer men, he had more that were well trained. The battle, following a brief mop-up campaign ending with the Battle of Klingenthal, enabled Sweden to occupy Saxony. Their mass grave is said to be on the Black Mound in Rokycany, which commemorates the decimation to this day. At 5:00 PM Gustavus Adolphus launched a counterattack through the center. During the battle, Colonel Madlon's cavalry regiment was the first that fled without striking a blow. Articles such as this one were acquired and published with the primary aim of expanding the information on Britannica.com with greater speed and efficiency than has traditionally been possible. On 17 September the two armies met on a plain near the village of Breitenfeld. The Imperials had 26,000 men and 46 guns, the Swedes 20,000 men and 70 guns.[2]. Losses: Catholic, 7,000 dead, 6,000 surrendered on the field (and 3,000 the next day at Leipzig) of 35,000; Swedish, 2,100 of 23,000; Saxon, 3,000 of 16,000. Key differences between Imperial forces and the Swedes and their allies were in the training and structure of infantry, and in the S… The Battle of Breitenfeld (German: Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Swedish: Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately 8 km north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. The battle was a decisive victory for the Swedish army under the command of Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson over an Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire under the command of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and his deputy, Prince-General Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig (23 October 1642), took place at Breitenfeld (some 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north-east of Leipzig), Germany, during the Thirty Years' War.The battle was a decisive victory for the Swedish army under the command of Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson over an Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire under the command of. Battle of Breitenfeld (1631): | | | First Battle of Breitenfeld | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the … Both Armies were well supplied, and the terrain gave neither a distinct advantage. Ninety men (chosen by rolling dice) were executed at Rokycany, in western Bohemia, now in the Czech Republic, on December 14, 1642 by Jan Mydlář (junior), the son of Jan Mydlář, the famous executioner from Prague. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some 7.5 kilometres north-east of Leipzig, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. 7 September 1631. Battle of Breitenfeld (1631): Miller, Frederic P.: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. Interested in participating in the Publishing Partner Program? In the ensuing months Gustavus swept triumphantly through central Germany, systematically consolidating his base areas as he…. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Another version says that the soldiers were shot, and their bodies hanged on the trees. The battle was a decisive victory for the Swedish army under the command of Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson over an Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire under the command of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and his deputy, Prince-General Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi. On 15 September Gustavus Adolphus’s army of 23,000 joined 16,000 soldiers from the Electorate of Saxony. The rapid advance unsettled the imperial lines and the Swedish were able to reorder, creating a new left flank. From noon to 2:00 PM there was an artillery exchange in which the Swedish guns outnumbered those of the Catholics by fifty-one to twenty-seven. The Battle of Breitenfeld (German: Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Swedish: Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately five miles north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. The winning general, King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, showed exceptional skill as a commander. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north-east of Leipzig, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. The main Catholic field army was destroyed, and the Swedish Protestant host overran most of central Germany and Bohemia in the winter of 1631–32. The forces all had different structural organization. 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