Early representation of this subgenre can also be found on the East Coast (Slick Rick, "Children's Story," 1988), in the South (2 Live Crew, "As Nasty As They Wanna Be," 1989), and in the Southwest (Geto Boys, "The Geto Boys," 1989; "Uncut Dope," 1992). 45–46). Kilham, Elizabeth. (Epstein 1977, p. 130), Slaveholders and missionaries assumed that exposure to Euro-American cultural traditions would encourage slaves to abandon their African way of life. The genre's exact origins are debatable, but it drew on groups like the Mills Brothers and The Ink Spots, who played a kind of R&B with smooth, alternating lead vocals. Rap/hip-hop music can be defined as rhymed poetry recited in rhythm over musical tracks. New York: Norton, 1983. In the 21st century, American popular music achieved great international acclaim. Sly & the Family Stone made pop-funk palatable for the masses, while George Clinton and his P Funk collective pioneered a new, psychedelic funk. The prototype, known as a gospel hymn, was developed during the first two decades of the twentieth century by the Philadelphia Methodist minister Charles A. Tindley. Looking for The United States of America - United States of America CD / Album? If some in the meantime sit, they strike the sounds alternately on each thigh. Rockabilly's earliest stars were Elvis Presley and Bill Haley, who entertained to crowds of devoted teenage fans. The wider African-American folk community shared Hurston's views, objecting that the new modes of presentation were too "pretty" (Work 1949, pp. Cambridge, Mass. They mingled there with poor whites of other ethnic backgrounds, as well as many blacks. Brass Bands and New Orleans Jazz. They pioneered a nationalist school of composition that preserved the spirit and musical features of black folk idioms. Other songs were drawn from the folk blues and composed by professional black male song-writers. The Clark Sisters, Vanessa Bell Armstrong, Tramaine Hawkins, Walter Hawkins, Commissioned, Bebe and CeCe Winans, Take 6, Nu Colors, Sounds of Blackness, Daryl Coley, Keith Pringle, John P. Kee, Little Saints in Praise, Kinnection, and Kirk Franklin (gospel rap) are among those performers who created new gospel styles by stretching traditional musical parameters. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1972. Dorsey, a former blues and ragtime performer, brought a different kind of song structure, melody, harmony, rhythm, and energy to the black sacred tradition. They are sung in a variety of styles by congregations, gospel soloists, duos, quartets, and numerous traditional and contemporary ensembles and choirs. Church Boy: My Music and My Life. Burnim, Mellonee V., and Portia K. Maultsby, eds. Go-go, a derivative funk style, evolved in Washington, D.C.'s inner-city neighborhoods during the mid-1970s. New York: Norton, 1997. Schafer, William J. That same year (1989), De La Soul's 3 Feet High and Rising became the earliest release of alternative hip hop, and numerous regional styles of hip hop saw their first legitimization, including Chicago hip house, Los Angeles electroclash, Miami's bass, Washington, D.C.'s go-go and Detroit's ghettotech. Overlapping the doo-wop vocal group style was a pop-oriented sound that featured orchestral arrangements, gospel-pop-flavored vocal stylings, sing-along (as opposed to call-response) phrases known as hook lines, and Latin-derived rhythms. It was a mixture of diverse influences, including swing, blues, polka and popular cowboy songs, and included early stars like Bob Wills, who became among the best known musicians of the era. After the release of the disco film Saturday Night Fever (1977), disco crossed over from a primarily black and gay audience into the mainstream. Labeled hardcore, this rap form constitutes three stylistic categories: conscious, nationalist, or message rap; gangsta or reality rap; and X-rated rap. New York: New American Library, 2005. In the 1970s Andrae Crouch experimented with every black secular form, employing melodies, harmonies, rhythms, and instrumentation from ragtime, jazz, blues, and funk; Rance Allen borrowed rhythms and instrumentation from the rhythm-and-blues and soul-music traditions; and Vernard Johnson elevated the saxophone to the status of a solo gospel instrument. In response, West Coast rappers vilified their East Coast counterparts, accusing them of being "soft" and disrespecting the West Coast contributions to hip-hop. 's, Dixie Hummingbirds, Swan Silvertones, and the Blind Boys; the gospel groups of Roberta Martin, Sally Ward, Clara Ward, and the Barrett Sisters; and the soloists Mahalia Jackson, Sallie Martin, Willie Mae Ford Smith, Marion Williams, Bessie Griffin, Albertina Walker, Alex Bradford, James Cleveland, and Shirley Caesar. The bluesy guitar lines, ragtime and boogie-woogie rhythms, horn riffs, and polyrhythmic drum patterns brought a contemporary sound to old traditions. Music of the United States of America (MUSA) is a series of critical editions representing the full range of genres and idioms in American music. Jazz: A History of the New York Scene. Classical Music Modern jazz (also known as avant-garde or free jazz) innovators include Ornette Coleman, Cecil Taylor, Archie Shepp, Sun Ra, and the Art Ensemble of Chicago. A hybrid dance style, it fused the twelve-bar blues and boogie-woogie bass line with the repetitive melodic riffs and drum patterns of the swing bands of the Southwest and the West (specifically Kansas City). Civil rights freedom songs are the products of the 1950s and 1960s civil rights and Black Power movements, respectively. In 1984 UTFO ("Roxanne Roxanne"), Roxanne Shante ("Roxanne's Revenge"), and the Real Roxanne ("The Real Roxanne") popularized verbal dueling, or "signifyin'," between genders. Inspired by the appearance of the Fisk Jubilee Singers in London, Coleridge-Taylor arranged traditional African and African-American folk melodies in a piece for piano, Twenty-four Negro Melodies, Op. These and other compositions, which are included in hymnbooks of all denominations, have become part of the black oral tradition. This music was so popular among Chicago's southern migrants that it also provided the entertainment on excursion trains that transported blacks to the South on holidays. The popularity of "Oh, Happy Day" within and outside the religious community inspired other gospel performers to exploit Hawkins's model. Levine, Lawrence. To remain competitive against the disco craze, some funk bands, such as Heat-wave and Con Funk Shun, incorporated disco elements in their music, replacing horn players with synthesizers and juxtaposing disco rhythms in the funk groove. 61–98). The Negro and His Music (1936). In the 1980s gospel and classical performers joined forces to record a historic album, Edwin Hawkins Live (1981), with the Oakland Symphony Orchestra. Slaves also adopted European instruments, which they learned to play as early as the 1690s. "Oh, Happy Day," for example, is laced with elements of soul music, particularly its danceable beat. Follow K. Kieren @kierenpeverley. Hinson, Glenn. from Brooklyn, and Notorious B.I.G. Myers, Robert Manson, ed. We'll Understand It Better By and By: Pioneering African American Gospel Composers. Musically, the P-funk style advances the concepts of Sly Stone, who achieved mood and textural variety through the use of electronic distorting devices and synthesizers. The fiddle and fife were popular among slaves, and they played them in conjunction with African instruments. Popularizers of the party-rap style include Sequence ("Funk You Up," 1979), Curtis Blow ("The Breaks," 1980), Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five ("Freedom," 1980; "Birthday Party," 1981), Funky Four Plus One ("Rapping and Rocking the House," 1980), Lady B. The music of these people was highly varied in form, and was mostly religious in purpose. By the late 1980s, new black popular styles were being created by independent producers, including Teddy Riley, Dallas Austin, and the teams of James "Jimmy Jam" Harris and Terry Lewis and Antonio "L. The fusion of classical elements with gospel has its origins in the style of the Roberta Martin Singers. This collage captures the ethos, chaos, tensions, anger, despair, and the sometimes violent nature of inner-city life, thus supporting the harsh lyrics and assertive delivery style of hardcore rappers. 344–345). The first Mexican-Texan pop star was Lydia Mendoza, who began recording in 1934. The demand for the blues, nevertheless, continued to grow. The style, pioneered by Teddy Riley, represents postmodern soul; it is defined by its sparse instrumentation and a marked underlying drum pattern blended with or sometimes above the tempered vocals. Undergirding the slaves' independent worship services were African values that emphasized group participation and free expression. Representative performers included OutKast and Goodie MoB from Atlanta, Master P. from New Orleans, and Geto Boys and Scareface from Houston. The Hip-Hop Studies Reader. This was largely due to the work of Clifton Chenier, who began recording for Speciality Records in 1955. This form transformed the folk spiritual into an art song for solo voice. While some ex-slaves had access to the new educational institutions established for blacks, the vast majority had few if any options for social advancement and economic stability. Work, John W. American Negro Songs and Spirituals. London: Serpent's Tail, 2000. Urban Blues. Over these amplified instruments, blues singers shouted and moaned about city life—the good times, the bad times, and the lonely times. Reggae is a late twentieth-century black musical phenomenon that draws deeply from Afro-Jamaican religious, dance, and musical practices while…, Dibango, Manu Pearson, Nathan W., Jr. Goin' to Kansas City. In the first movement of his well-known Afro-American Symphony (1930), for example, Still juxtaposes original blues and spiritual melodies; in the third movement he introduces the banjo, the most familiar of all African instruments in the New World. 180 Tastepoints. (Myers 1972, pp. Find the latest tracks, albums, and images from The United States of America. People like Harry Kandel and Dave Tarras become stars within their niche, and made the United States the international center for klezmer (Broughton, 583). 84–85). This shift in the regional preference for rap music fuelled verbal battles that came to be known as the East Coast–West Coast feud. This theme and the philosophy of P-funk prevail in Parliament's "Chocolate City" (1975); "P. Funk (Wants to Get Funked Up)" (1975); "Prelude" (1976); "Dr. Funkenstein" (1976); "Bop Gun (Endangered Species)" (1977); and "Funkentelechy" (1977). Immigration from China began in large numbers in the 19th century, most of them settling on the West Coast. At the same time, jazz and blues, two distinct but related genres, began flourishing in cities like Memphis, Chicago and New Orleans and began to attract some mainstream audiences. Sinful Tunes and Spirituals: Black Folk Music to the Civil War. New York: Routledge, 1999. Paralleling the emergence of rhythm-and-blues combos in Los Angeles in the 1940s was a style known as club blues and cocktail music in African-American and white clubs, respectively. As the 1990s began, hair metal was dominating the charts, especially formulaic bands like Extreme. Taking a different approach, Zapp and Roger from Dayton, Ohio, used advanced technologies to create an electro-based Dayton funk sound centering on the vocoder (an electronic and distorting talk box); a heavy, synthesized bottom; and distorted instrumental timbres. Psychedelic and progressive rock arose during this period, along with the roots of what would later become funk, hip hop, salsa, electronic music, punk rock and heavy metal. The band formed in Seattle, USA, in 1993. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Jazz, an ensemble-based instrumental music, is a twentieth-century form. Relocating in cities, they created widespread awareness of the blues tradition, appearing in cabarets, dance halls, off-Broadway productions, and on records. Most sharecroppers lived in the same shacks on the same farms and plantations that they had as slaves. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1970. The 1950s also saw the widespread popularization of gospel music, in the form of powerful singers like Mahalia Jackson. Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. Charters, Samuel B., and Leonard Kunstadt. This vocal group style is associated with the Moonglows, Monotones, Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers, Five Satins, Channels, Charts, Heartbeats, Chantels, and Crests, among others. 112–120). The first field of American music that could be viewed as popular, rather than classical or folk, was the singing of the colonial New England choirs, and travelling singing masters like William Billings. "A Composer's Viewpoint." Check out The Presidents of The United States of America on Amazon Music. Vaudeville singers were accompanied by blues-ragtime-jazz pianists or a New Orleans–style jazz band. The opera Troubled Island (1941) captures the spirit of Haitian culture. Dorsey was known as the "Father of Gospel," and his compositions fuse blues-style melodies with blues and ragtime rhythms. Country and folk music further developed as well, gaining newfound popularity and acclaim for hard-edged folk music. The vocal harmony group tradition was the most popular rhythm-and-blues form among teenagers, especially those living in urban centers. Even though many composers attempted to preserve vocabulary, form, structure, rhythms, textures, tonal qualities, and aesthetic devices of folk forms, the printed score changed the character of the original style. The East Coast rappers publicly condemned the West Coast rappers as being fake and "studio gangsters" (i.e., creating a fictional gangster lifestyle). Urban blues was one of the most popular black music forms to emerge during the 1940s. However, the date of retrieval is often important. In contrast, practices associated with the black folk church epitomize an oral tradition. Work, John W. "Changing Patterns in Negro Folk Songs." Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States in the Years, 1853–1854, with Remarks on their Economy (1856). New York: Arno, 1969. The level of competition escalated the East/West rivalry to new heights (spurred on by the hip-hop media) and culminated in the deaths of Oakland rapper Tupac Shakur in 1996 and Notorious B.I.G. The Great Depression led to a decline in the recording of black music during the 1930s. 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